Thursday, March 26, 2020
Flowers For Algernon And Other Stories The most obvious contrast between Flowers for Algernon and other short stories, such as "A & P" and "Miss Brill" is the length. But length is not the topic for this short essay. The predominant difference, besides length, is the number of fully realized characters in the story. In "A & P" and "Miss Brill" the only fully developed characters are Sammy in "A & P" and Miss Brill in "Miss Brill." In the short story "A & P" by John Updike, there is a character, Sammy, who is shown experiencing about 15 minutes (maybe less) of life in a market. Besides Sammy, the rest of the people in the story are basically cardboard characters that create conflict for Sammy. The reader never really gets to know the store manager or the girls because they are all looked at through the eyes of Sammy. In a longer story, other characters might have been fleshed out and given more complex and real personalities instead of acting as catalysts for the plot. In the short story "Miss Brill" by Katherine Mansfield, there is a character, Miss Brill who is a completely developed character. The other characters in the story?the people in the park and the two teenagers on the bench next to her?only help to develop Miss Brill further. The reader never knows any of the supporting characters (if they can even be called supporting). Just as in "A & P" they are nothing more than catalysts. In the long short story "Flowers for Algernon" by Daniel Keyes, Charlie Gordon is, indeed, the main character. In this story however, he is not the only character. The other characters in the story are not just things to move the plot along and develop Charlie as a character, but are full characters themselves. Alice, Charlie's "love interest" cares for Charlie even before the operation. She is conflicted in the way that she wants Charlie to be smarter, but is not so sure of the operation. Her feelings come out pretty obviously in the last scene when Charlie (after his high IQ has dwindled back to where he was, or even less) goes back to class. When she sees him back in the class for people with learning problems, she runs out crying because of what has happened to Charlie. We understand why she does what she does, and also can relate to her feelings and emotions. The difference between stories like "A & P," "Miss Brill," and "Flowers for Algernon" is that short stories present an opportunity to focus on the personality of a single character while longer stories can have a more developed supporting characters. Focusing on only one character does not make a story of any less worth than a story with fifty developed characters. It is just a different style of writing.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Rulers and Reaction Times essays The reaction time of ten subjects was measured. The subjects were asked to catch a ruler ten times under five different conditions. The first condition measured the subject's simple reaction time. Each further condition added an additional stimulus and the reaction times were measured. There was a clear increase in reaction time with the addition of further stimulus, however the expected result of a steady increase in response time with the addition of each condition did not occur. The third condition displayed the highest response time where as the final condition displayed the second lowest (after condition 1). Assuming that no design problems in the experiment affected the results, it cannot be concluded that cognitive processes occur in separate order and do not overlap. Given the average reaction time of condition five was lower than condition three, some cognitive adaption may have occurred to lower the response time of the subjects or another reason may exist. One asp ect not covered by the experiment, but important to the results was the error factor. Pre-guessing the experimenter caused a high rate of error, however it lowered the overall results. As the world moves forward with technology, increasing pressure is placed upon humans to be quicker, be smarter and to operate more efficiently. As the population increases systems are being put in place to reduce incidences and accidents occurring. An example of this is a study conducted by Cameron, 1995 examining the influence of specific light colors, motor vehicle braking and the reaction time of the drivers to these specific clouds and conditions to avoid rear end collisions. Donders subtractive method holds that reaction times can be obtained by subtracting the simple reaction time; or subtracting type A from type B etc. (Cameron, 1995). Given this, it stands that the more stimulus provided (or thought processes required), the longer the response time of the subj...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Mills utilitarianism - Essay Example One thing which we should have learned by now during our philosophical journey is that we have to have a theory of human behavior which should be able to address the diversity of human environments and thus cannot be very simple and rigid. Utilitarianism is a step in that direction. Utilitarianism The founder of Utilitarianism was Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). His theory begins with proposition that nature has placed human beings under two masters: pleasure and pain. Anything that seems good must either be directly pleasurable, or thought to be a means to pleasure or to the avoidance of pain. Conversely, anything that seems bad must either be directly painful, or thought to be a means to pain or to the deprivation of pleasure. From this Bentham argued that the words right and wrong can only be meaningful if they are used in accordance with the Utilitarian principle, so that whatever increases the net surplus of pleasure over pain is right and whatever decreases it is wrong. Moreover, the net pain and pleasure to be considered is not restricted to personal level but should be the sum of the pleasure of all involved by acting or getting effected by a particular action. Therefore from utilitarianism we cannot gauge the utility of action by putting it on the persona l criteria of pleasure and pain but it has to be more wholesome resultantly more complex but practicable. Basic Objections to Utilitarianism Most difficult part in the implementation of Bentham's utilitarianism is that to take an action, one has to take into account the expanse of the effects of the actions i.e. how far the consequences going to travel. This factor leads to three basic objections to utilitarianism:- 1. Utilitarianism is too demanding as it is more inclined towards collective good than individual good. 2. Utilitarianism is a heartless doctrine as it does not concentrate/focus on the intention but on the consequences thus making the entire concept of virtuous intent redundant. 3. The Principle of Utility is impractical because one has to think the consequences for which the time and information might not be available at a particular moment. Mill's Modification to Utilitarianism These basic objections though seem valid were addressed by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). The salient points of his modification to utilitarianism were:- 1. Introduction of Higher and Lower Pleasure Mill is of the opinion that pleasure has to be distributed into categories of higher and lower pleasure. At times we may confront a situation that we find a number of actions which might lead to "pleasure". In such circumstances we would be at a loss to decide the course of action. It will be only the conception of higher and lower pleasure which will give us the ability to take correct actions at correct time. In doing so we should also consider that the most suitably equipped person to judge the distinction between the higher and lower pleasure is the one who has experienced both. 2. Introduction of Rules in Moral Decision Making Mill considers that rules can be the force behind the decision. These rules are in fact the outcome of utilitarianism and they are established by taking into consideration principles of utility i.e. rules which had been giving and will give "pleasure" to the
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Home work assignment - Essay Example The authors establish why the alibi in BancroftÃ¢â¬â¢s favour could well be the basis to suspect him. The truth, especially with regard to history, is bound to be vague, because even the best historical detection has more to do with probabilities than with certainties. 1 I am convinced that SackÃ¢â¬â¢s method of investigation works better with Susan Hamelin / Hamilton than the one used by the two journalists who interviewed her. This is because SackÃ¢â¬â¢s method is primarily based on building rapport at first with the person with whom he wishes to interact. This, to a great extent, prevents the possibility of the person being interviewed hiding or distorting facts. 2 Even as a group, SackÃ¢â¬â¢s personalistic method is to be preferred to the historiansÃ¢â¬â¢ method, because the latter, with their impersonal attitude, tend to regard the person being interviewed as an object of study whereas in SackÃ¢â¬â¢s method, the person being interviewed will be touched by the apparent genuineness of the interviewerÃ¢â¬â¢s concern. This creates the platform for an honest exchange of ideas and information. If SackÃ¢â¬â¢s method yields good results with people who are challenged, it is quite reasonable to believe that the method will work much better with people who are sane and fit. 3 If I were to pick a patient from Ã¢â¬ËAn Anthropologist on MarsÃ¢â¬â¢, I would choose Temple Grandin. When I try to know more about her, I would make an effort to gain an understanding of her self and identity. In this scientific investigation must go hand in hand with an emotional concern. The purpose of this understanding is to be able to suggest ways to them how the quality of life can be improved within the limitations and to explore what adaptations are possible in this direction. The devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the use of nuclear bombs continues to be acknowledged in history as the most destructive man-made tragedy in the human history and must also continue to haunt the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Youth Unemployment In The United Kingdom Economics Essay The UK as a country, are accustomed to living beyond their means. The Great Britain runs a large budget deficit. The money a country cannot raise from taxation needs to be borrowed and especially in UK where people are receiving benefits (e-g Health NHS, Pensions and home support etc) . This is when the Budget Deficit occurs. The Budget Deficit means the amount which Government spending exceeds its income over a particular period of time this is when the economy goes into recession .It is the opposite of budget surplus .Budget surplus is when the governments expenditure is less than the Governments income . The Damaging effects of Budget deficit are Inflation i-e high prices of goods and Unemployment . The budget deficit leads to unemployment i-e the number of people gaining jobs is less than the number of people losing jobs. This occurs when an economy is in a recession . The employers are not willing to take a risk during recession so they dont employ youngsters. Because in a recession there is inflation i-e high prices of goods and services so the sales are not at their peak so they dont employ youth staff because of their expenditure and high prices of goods and services during recession . The unemployment rate in UK now is 7.8 % i-e 2.50 million .The Unemployed people increased by 49,000 over the quarter to reach 2.50 million. Male unemployment reached 1.48 million while female unemployment reached 1.02 million. The unemployment rate of people of age 16-24 increased by 1.0 on the quarter to reach 20.3 %, the highest since 1992.There are several damaging effects of unemployment to economy if the people are jobless than there are less tax payers in the economy .This is not because the person cannot find him/herself a job it can be due to any reason.It could be due to cyclical , strutural , seasonal or strucural unemployment .The Government has to find a way , Because if people are jobless or unemployed then there are less tax payers and thus the improvement in the economy could be marginal.The Government should provide support to the unemployed people and to the companies as well which are struggling at the moment to get them going because if the comppany gain profits t hen they can pay the income tax .CBI (Confederation of buisness industry ) estimates that the unemployment rate in Britain will reach 8.4 percent in 2011 , up from 7.9 % last yearr and that it will remain unchanged in 2012. The budget deficit also leads to inflation which means higher prices of products , the Government can impose high taxes on products and higher income taxes . The Government can reduce inflation in many ways . They can do it by wage control which again might lead to frictional unemployment because mostly the employees are not happy with low wages or salaries . The other way of reducing inflation is monetarism controlling inflation through controlling money supply . But both ways of controlling inflation leads to youth unemployment . Therefore the Government must try for stable low inflation . 0 % inflation is not feasible in an economy because of the Government spending or expenditure .The other policies that can be used to control inflation is by slowing down the growth of aggregate demand or boost the rate of growth of aggregate supply . If the Government continued cutting budget , then unemployment would keep on rising. so they have to borrow a limited amount of money .There should be an availability of funds to small and medium enterprises so that the enterprises employs more youngsters so that the people getting jobs could pay the tax again . They can do this by helping someone in building a firm or an entreprise financially and the Government should also encourage other people to build firms because for some people it is a gamble or a risk , People want to do it but the situations dont let them do it e-g during a recession ,Nobody is willing to take a risk as it will lead to failure . So the Government should encourage them so that they can build a firm and start doing business and the business cannot be run without labour so they would employ young guns so that would decrease youth unemployment. During the recession, When the unemployment is at its peak the enterprises or firms pay low wages. When the enterprise s need employees or staff, and there are many people that need work especially youngsters , than open positions, the enterprises select those persons that request the lowest salaries but when the entreprise is struggling to find new employees then the entreprises offer high new wages to get the employees they need , It means wages and salaries are low during high unemployment . Youth Unemployment can also be decreased by regenerating businesses. Many businesses opt to close after a suffering a great loss in a business or there is less productivity or the employees are not happy with their salaries and wages so businesses then opt to close. But if the Government could help them financially in starting up or regenerating that business again then there is a chance of a decrease in youth Unemployment. Sometimes Fiscal policy can help in reducing youth unemployment .According to Keynesian Fiscal policy means the revenue collected through taxation . By using the fiscal policy the Government can increase the aggregate demand which will result in higher output and which will lead to the creation of many jobs and the youth unemployment can be decreased but that will give birth to another disease i-e inflation which means higher prices of goods and services . The UK Government should increase the exports to other countries i-e sending UK-made products to other countries . It is a very good way of income and unemployment can decrease because of the income the Government might not implement major budget cuts mostly due to which unemployment occurs and there should be a decrease in imports. The interest rates of the banks should be kept low. Making local market competitive abroad by devaluing currency . The Government should encourage overseas investors because they are a boost to the economy by allowing businessmen from other countries to invest in the UK and because of that people are going to get jobs in those firms and moreover the overseas investor brings money to a country which is a good sign for an economy . This is one of the best way to avoid budget deficit in an economy . The Government should also discourage asylum seekers because the Government spends a lot on the asylum seekers. The Government should try to expand their International Market they should discover specialised UK products. Politicians in the G20 nations must ensure that progress is sustained, but in the UK the Government should not flinch from taking additional prudential measures. we have to rethink our approach to the economic consequences of our now rapidly ageing society. have to reshape the structure of public finance, and not limit the debate to this tax or that tax or the scale of efficiency savings. A root and branch restructuring of the tax and benefit system, to include cutting benefits paid to the better-off and anachronistic tax breaks and subsidies that benefit companies, could generate billions of pounds in revenue. To conclude , There are many ways in which a Government can reduce unemployment but it totally depends on the Government i-e which policy to use at what time ?. Firstly they should keep control on their spending and stop the budget deficit from happening
Saturday, January 18, 2020
In narrow perspective, PA is a documentation, filling form, checking boxes, once-a-year drill, annual fiasco, meeting held between lower and higher worker, and they will meet again next year (Grote, 2002; DelPo, 2007; Tourish, 2004). It s a common misconception that performance appraisal entails simply filling out an evaluation form answering prefabricated questions and checking boxes. If this were the case, you wouldn t need an entire book to help you do it right, and your evaluation wouldn t be worth the paper you wrote it on. When done correctly, performance appraisal is a process, not a document it is a way of structuring your relationship with your employees. A good appraisal system includes observation, documentation, and communication. It envisions a workplace in which supervisors know what is happening in their departments (who is doing what and how well) and document employee performance as it occurs. Supervisors and their employees should have open lines of communication. Employees should know how they are doing so they can make adjustments when they veer off track. Supervisors should know what obstacles get in the way of their employees performance so they can remove those obstacles as they arise (DelPo, 2007). PURPOSE Study shows that PA is commonly used by companies now, from every level or industrial background (Nakervis and Leece, 1997; Bach, 2003). Of course the phenomenon is not without cause, consider that sometimes PA is a hectic and hated job, time and cost consuming. Grote (2002) case in No. 14 is cited from DelPo (2007)- list the purpose of PA as follow: 1. Providing feedback to employees about their performance 2. Determining who gets promoted 3. Facilitating layoff or downsizing decisions 4. Encouraging performance improvement 5. Motivating superior performance 6. Setting and measuring goals 7. Counseling poor performers 8. Determining compensation changes Encouraging coaching and mentoring Supporting manpower planning or succession planning Determining individual training and development needs Determining organizational training and development needs Confirming that good hiring decisions are being made Providing legal defensibility for personnel decisions Case : A hospital fires an African-American doctor. She does not have an employment contract, so the hospital does not need just cause to ire her. Nonetheless, the doctor files a wrongful termination lawsuit, claiming that she was fired because of her race. When she files her lawsuit, she has no real evidence of racial discrimination; her case is based on her belief that she was always treated more harshly than her coworkers, most of whom were white men. The hospital responds by asserting that she was fired because of her poor diagnostic skills and her inability to get along with her coworkers. Her attorney requests her performance evaluations. Well managed PA system can prevent this kind of situation. Further reading about the issue of legal practice and PA, read The Performance Appraisal Handbook; Legal & Practical Rules for Managers by Amy DelPo. 15. Improving overall organizational performance Performance Appraisal is an integrated part of company s Performance Management Strategy (PMS). Performance Management is a set of regular, ongoing human resource activities carried out by managers and supervisors relative to their subordinates to enhance and maintain employee performance toward the achievement of desired performance objectives (Vance and Paik, 2006). Why company need to create such job, what are the job requirement, job description, the most important thing to do in this job, issue surround the job, etc. 2. The Jobholder Who is suitable for the job? What are the requirements? 3. The Person Now, you have to know the person deeper. How is his performance compare to the previous year. Remember, know the person based on the job, not based on individual prejudices 4. The Self-Appraisal or Accomplishment List If you asked the individual to prepare a list of accomplishments or complete a self-appraisal (and return it to you in advance), this will be a worthwhile source of performance data. This information then can be gathered by assigned appraiser (supervisor, specialist, peers, appraisee, or all). There are two types of information: 1. Qualitative: Information of behavioral remarks, comments, symptom, process, expectation, etc. 2. Quantitative : Numerical information. Information about sales number, revenue, productivity (number of product per hour or per day), and area covered, etc. Quantitative is easier to be measured and less subjective. There are two types of quantitative information; pure numerical information, and scaled information. Scaled information is subjective and non-numerical information, but converted into number by scaling method. For example, 5 for Excellent, until 1 for very poor. Or 1 for Approved, 0 for Rejected (see additional exhibit, example of performance appraisal form of University of California). The appraiser can use combination of questionnaires, observation and interview to gather the information (an example of the standard PA form can be seen in the exhibit 1). The job can be very useful, yet sensitive because: 1. Common agreement among HR specialist that subjectivity cannot be avoided. . Legal consideration (sexual harassment, racism or libel issue) 3. No standard question or appraisal method available. Most of the organizations have to adjust the method for their organizational style. Performance Appraisal by only one appraiser sometimes might trigger subjectivity and bias. To prevent this, the method known as 360-degree Performance Appraisal is implemented. This form deviates from the vertical, hierarchical arrangement in that every member of an organization is placed at the centre point of a circle embracing all related employees, superiors and colleagues. Manager hates to measure their employee for some reason, while in the same time, employee hate to be scrutinized. Time consuming, high cost, and focused on past result rather than future development, are among the arguments, also additional findings show that performance appraisal can actually lead to poorer rather than better performance, tend to create prompt argument between appraiser and employee (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2003, cited from Martin and Bartol, 1998; Kikoski, 1999). Gloomy predictions about the end of performance appraisal even have been prophesied by some writer. As Bach (2003) noted, some have predict that appraisal would fall apart at the seams (cited from Margerison, 1976), due to employee ambivalence and union opposition, and added that the days of standardized appraisals were number (Bach, 2003, cited from Fletcher, 1993). (Cited from my journal study). Tourish (2004) revealed even more shaking information. As he cited from various research, that Appraisal should be avoided if it linked to numeration and payment, because sometimes may lead to moral hazard and even bankruptcy. As he wrote it: An illuminating example of what happens when this research is ignored may be in order. Enron was an organisation that combined both a ranking system and the linking of performance to pay. Its bankruptcy in 2001 stands (at the time of writing) as the biggest in US corporate history. As with many other aspects of its internal culture, its approach to appraisal is a valuable case study in what not to do. An internal performance review committee rated employees twice a year (Gladwell, 2002). They were graded on a scale of 1 to 5, on ten separate criteria, and then divided into one of three groups A s, who were to be challenged and given large rewards; B s, who were to be encouraged and affirmed, and C s, who were told to shape up or ship out. Those in the A category were referred to internally as water walkers. The process was known as rank and yank. The company s propensity to disproportionately reward those who were high achievers and risk-takers was widely acclaimed by business gurus (e. g. Hamel, 2000). Faculty from the prestigious Harvard Business School produced 11 case studies, uniformly praising its successes. However, problems multiplied. People chased high rankings because the potential rewards were enormous, while low rankings imperilled both their salaries and eventually their jobs. The appearance of success mattered more than its substance. In addition, internal promotions due to the appraisal system reached 20% a year. This made further evaluation more difficult, and inevitably more subjective how could you honestly rank someone s performance when they did not hold a position long enough to render sound judgement possible? Paradoxically, Enron had a punitive internal regime ( rank and yank ) but loose control (those adjudged to be top performers moved on too fast to be pinned down). In this case, ratings and performance pay formed a lethal mix. Internal staff churn, and a relentless emphasis on achieving high performance ratings in the interests of obtaining ever-greater personal rewards, contributed to the lax ethical atmosphere that precipitated the company s downfall. Versions of rank and yank have been used by many organisations, including General Electric and IBM. IBM, in the early 1990s, actually required that one out of every ten employees be allocated a poor rating, and given three months to improve or be fired (Gabor, 1992). The research evidence overwhelmingly suggests that such practices produce only defiance, defensiveness and rage (Kohn, 1999). However, despite all the criticisms, number of companies utilize this system is still growing. I think this is understandable because some findings correlate the implementation of effective and well created performance management system and performance appraisal, with employee s or organizational success. Waal (2008) in his research titled The effects of performance management on the operational sales results of a bank , showed that the PM related key events had a significant and lasting positive impact on the quantitative result of the division (Waal, 2008). Table 1: Disadvantage of PA, as identified from literature Source : Kourkit and Waal (2008) Other study conducted by Kourkit and Waal (2008), strengthen the previous findings. In this research, writers try to find out the correlation between advantageous and disadvantageous of Performance management, with companies success. The research showed that in general the advantages were experienced to a much greater degree than the disadvantages, and that specific reasons for use achieved specific advantages. With the research results, management can convince organizational members that SPM (strategic performance management), indeed beneficial for the organization (Kourkit and Waal, 2008. Italic added). Kourkit and Waal try to find the answer for dissatisfaction of PA process and they found out that there is no correlation between advantages created by Performance Management with dissatisfaction. In other word, companies where PA system works well will create the advantages it has promised. Future studies are needed to identify about what is going on with PA system in bankrupt companies (like Enron). Is it poor performance management might result their bankruptcy? Figure 2 : Relation Model developed by Kourkit and Wall (2008). Source : Kourkit and Wall (2008) TQM (Total Quality Management) by some also seen as the opposite of PA. Adoption of TQM, which emphasize more in team effort (Wikipedia, accessed 2010), didn t seems to lessen the spreading and growing importance of PA. Some have tried to reconcile the difference by creating a PA system that actually works so well in TQM (Marr and Kussy, 1993). This criticism is closely related with argument of team (emphasized by TQM) Vs. individual appraisal (PA). However, Kessler (2003) find out that, There is some evidence to suggest that use of team pay to support job design may have positive outcomes in terms of individual and organizational performance (Wageman 1995; Burgess et al. 2003). However, the take-up of team pay remains low with well under 20 per cent of organizations using it (CIPD 2003). Salary progressions based on team performance is even less in evidence; these findings are confirmed by other surveys (Thompson and Milsome 2001: 13). This low takeup suggests that despite some evidence of effectiveness, administrative difficulties remain in introducing team pay. It is not always easy to find a standard of team performance that can be linked to pay because teams often break up quickly and do not therefore represent a stable base for a pay. Moreover, it remains questionable whether team working in the strictest sense is as widespread as assumed (see Cully et al. 999: 43). Team-based pay may well be rare simply because genuine forms of team working are scarce. AVOIDING THE PERIL Performance Appraisal process, as we have seen, proven to be a dangerous game. However, it is necessary for company s success. Failure of PA process can sometimes attributed to human shortcomings. Tourish (2004) list 8 of that phenomenon that must be carefully avoided: 1. Appraisers frequently fall victim to the halo effect. There is a tendency to assume that a positive attribute or a job related success in one area automatically implies success in others. 2. Personal liking bias means that when supervisors like a subordinate, for whatever reason, they generally give them higher performance ratings, their judgment of the subordinate s work performance becomes less accurate and they show a disinclination to punish or deal with poor performance. 3. The horn effect arises when a problem in one area is assumed to be representative of defects elsewhere 4. The consistency error suggests that we have an exaggerated need to feel consistent in our opinions and judgments, and to assume that people and circumstances are more stable than they actually are (Millar et al. 1992). 5. The fundamental attribution error, discussed above, means that an appraiser tends to attribute poor performance to the personality of the interviewee, rather than to the situation. 6. The similarity bias means that we are attracted to people who look like us, sound like us and form a convenient echo chamber for our own ideas. 7. The what is evaluated problem arises when the behaviors being evaluated differ from those required to obtain organizational goals. 8. Each of these problems is exacerbated by ingratiation effects. People with lower status habitually seeking to influence those of greater status by exaggerating how much they agree with their opinions, policies and practices, and so ingratiate themselves with the powerful, and sometimes might create bias to these so called powerful. DelPo (2007) also found that unwise selection of words can lead to poor PA system. Not only create false hope and false impression, it also might lead to legal problem. Brief, based on the fact, rather than personal conclusion is better than a long, trying to be funny or conclusive word. The latter, might bring not only false facts, but also future problem. Organization is comprised of human, which is all unique, so also the organization. Standardized PA schemes from industry to industry, from size to another size will be better if was avoided. The common mistake that also always lead to rejection to PA is, the believe that PA is just an annual ordered ritual. Useless but a must. In fact, PA is a never stop process. The shift in paradigm regarding PA is needed now days. Formal, written and companies scale PA can be held annually, monthly, quarterly or half-a-year, but everyday informal PA through Management By Walking Around, Management By Objectives, through constant communications and immediate daily basis feedback, might lessen the hectic work of annual PA and might reduce the frighten about PA. If I can extent the scope of Performance Management Process, PMS actually started since the recruitment. If the recruitment ran well, it will reduce the burden of PA, since all employees are ready, or willing to improve. Future study also needed in this part to know whether good recruitment system is correlated with successful PA scheme, and vice versa. Communication is also the most important. Employee must have the willingness to hear the feedback, while management also must be willing to receipt critics regarding the PA schemes and procedure. At very last, but one of the most important, Company s value, philosophy, vision and mission is also are fundamental in PA system. CONCLUSION y PA is an integral part of human life. We have experienced it since the moment we can remember and understand word. We live by it, cope with it, and shaped by it. Strengthened and weakened by it. In school we received report card, in university we get grades, those all are part of life s Performance Appraisal. Even as Christian, I believe that PA will continue in the afterlife. Appraisal is needed, it is necessary for company s or employee s development. Some study reported that PA is correlated with performance, and the growing number of user of this method, strengthen its position of importance. y PA is needed to measure performance, personally. PA is irrelevant under assumption that all member of organization has done and will do a fine job with, or without evaluation.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Treasure Island is written using a first person narrative, which has its own advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages consist of being able to experience how the character narrating feels, in this case we get to learn a lot about Jim Hawkins and how he feels throughout the novel just because he is the narrator of the novel. However, when Jim decides stow away in one of the boats heading for the shore R.L. Stevenson is faced with a problem in that he cannot let the reader know what is happening on board the Hispaniola. Stevenson finds a way around this problem by swapping the narrator to Doctor Livesey. This seems to sort out the problem for a while but if the reader was reading the novel at a fast pace then he might not read the chapter headings and know that the narrator has changed and therefore get confused with whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening in the story and where the characters are. I think that R.L. Stevenson knew that this problem would occur somewhere in the novel and anticipated it, he may have even planned it. But he still chose to use the first person narrative, although it is not always the easiest narrative to follow as Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ are used which often makes it hard to distinguish who Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ are, and who the speech is being directed at. However, I believe Stevenson chose this narrative as it makes it easier to let the reader know and understand the feelings of the character that is narrating the novel at any time in the novel. R.L. Stevenson describes the island very well throughout the novel by using all of the senses of a human being: Sight Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The appearance of the island when I came on deck next morning was altogether changed.Ã¢â¬ Sound Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"and the whole ship creaking and groaning,Ã¢â¬ Taste Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"like someone tasting a bad egg.Ã¢â¬ Smell Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"a smell of sodden leaves and rotting tree trunks.Ã¢â¬ Touch Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The Hispaniola was rolling scuppers under in the ocean swell.Ã¢â¬ The quotation I chose for sight was one of the many I could have used as part three of Treasure Island has many references to sight and how things look. Although there is not nearly as many R.L. Stevenson still makes a point of describing the sounds that are a part of the island and boat, like the creaking of the boat, and the sounds that the birds make. Chapter thirteen contains only one reference to taste and that is in the form of a simile. The effect this has is that most people know or can at least guess what a bad egg tastes like which gives the reader a good idea of how bad the island smelt. The chapter also has only one reference to smell which can also give the reader a good idea of how he island smelt, giving them quite a clear image of the island in their mindÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. Explaining how movement and how something feels is a difficult task to achieve when writing a novel, however I feel that R.L. Stevenson manages to accomplish this quite well. Describing how the boat was rolling gently in the water, how the temperature was very hot and describing how Jim had to hold on because he felt as though everything was spinning around him. Part of the tension of Treasure Island is built up at the end of part one when Dr. Livesey tells Squire Trelawney that he is afraid that the Squire will tell someone what the voyage is about and that there is treasure involved, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËThereÃ¢â¬â¢s only one man IÃ¢â¬â¢m afraid of.Ã¢â¬â¢ `And whoÃ¢â¬â¢s that?Ã¢â¬â¢ cried the squire. `Name the dog, sir!Ã¢â¬â¢ `You,Ã¢â¬â¢ replied the doctor; `for you cannot hold your tongue.'Ã¢â¬ The feeling this gives to the reader is one of untrustworthiness and a lack of faithfulness between friends which may cause the reader to become somewhat tense as there is a part of them that knows what is going to happen but they are not completely sure what or when it is going to happen. And when Jim and the doctor receive a letter from the squire it brings the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s fears to light as the letter he receives from the squire says that the squire told every man, woman and child that he met, and that he had hired a man with one leg. At this news, the reader may again feel tension in them, as they do not know what the people the squire told will do or if the man with one leg is the same person that Billy Bones was so scared of. Personally, I think that there are five reasons that this novel is so widely known and read; Firstly the book appeals to people of all ages, it has something that appeals to everyone that can read. Secondly, R.L. StevensonÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of narrative, it lets the reader know exactly how the character narrating feels, making you feel like apart of the novel. Thirdly, The way in which R.L. Stevenson chose to describe the island and everything surrounding it, almost making the Island a character. Fourthly, the amount of tension that is built up throughout the novel is huge; some readers might find the book hard to put down because of the tension as they feel they need to know what will happen next. Lastly, R.L. Stevenson thought up ideas about the setting, story, and narrative issues for Treasure Island himself, instead of doing what a lot of writers might do which is to take ideas from other people, modify them a bit, and then pass them off as their own. Due to this Treasure Island is unpredictable and lively, yet it is as easy to follow as a nursery book. I found Treasure Island to be quite an enjoyable book even though I do not usually read adventure novels.